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Different UPS systems supply various levels of power support. Systems feature the basic standby model, line interactive assistance or online support.
A standby UPS uses battery backup during a voltage sag, surge or a blackout. When the power surges above or plunges below safe voltage levels, this basic system switches to a DC battery backup and inverts the power to AC electricity to operate the connected equipment. Standby UPS topologies make it possible to support consumer electronics in the form of entry-level-type computers, security systems or point-of-sale (POS) systems.
A line interactive UPS system corrects minor fluctuations in power, such as over-voltages or under- voltages without switching to a battery supply. This system features an auto-transformer used to regulate brownouts (incidences of low voltages) and swells (over-voltages). These models work to support consumer electronics, including game systems, PCs, networks, and mid-range servers. They provide the backup power needed during voltage surges, swells, sags or blackouts.
Double-conversion or online UPS systems provide power, regardless of the amount of the incoming power supply. This UPS system converts AC power to DC, before converting it back to AC. This technology operates on DC all the time and therefore spends zero time switching to DC.
These systems protect mission-critical type IT equipment, high-end servers, data centres, and large telecom networks from blackouts, and voltage sags, surges, swells and spikes. They regulate frequency variations, frequency noise, or harmonic distortions as well.
UPS systems may have simulated sine wave outputs or sine wave outputs, depending on the system. A sine wave output represents the highest quality waveform output, as it provides a smooth and recurring oscillation of an AC power supply. Enterprise-type UPS systems produce this type of power to power-sensitive electronic equipment. A sine wave output ensures that any PFC (power factor correction) equipment will not shut down when switching from utility power to a battery power supply.
Now that you know how UPS works and how the backup benefits users, you will better understand why you also have to factor in the energy consumption. That is why some of the finest UPS systems today feature sensors in their technology. These mechanisms support electrical power failures, as well as mechanical power use, or fluid power supplies. Energy consumption factors into the equation, as it permits users of UPS systems to realise better outcomes with respect to productivity and cost efficiency.
Therefore, when choosing a UPS system, you need to consider the energy use and how it will affect your operations. For instance, a featured ESS on a UPS system is an energy saver system that permits better regulation of power. What’s more, the use of Li-ion or lithium-ion batteries is part of this energy savings plan. This is crucial, as digital functions depend on a data centre and the batteries that are used. Therefore, the batteries can make a vital difference in critical-use power supplies.
Data centres are important to business, as they assist in transaction processing, cloud computing, or the operation of e-commerce websites. As a result, any downtime can indeed be costly. Without the needed UPS backup or a data centre, it can become difficult for a site to update its production data or monitor sales. Employees may also find it difficult to access files. Serious financial implications may ensue, as well — events that can significantly reduce a company’s profits and damage its professional credibility.
A UPS system uses battery power that ensures power until the switchgear swaps to the alternative power supply, or it shuts down operations to an alternative data centre. Therefore, using Li-ion batteries makes it possible for UPS systems to provide more power as well greater energy density. As a result, the use of the lightweight batteries delivers more power for a longer time. The batteries can also be used in higher temperature extremes, which leads to lower cooling requirements.
Li-ion batteries are part of today’s smart technologies. In fact, the batteries can be smart-monitored so operators can easily check their state-of-charge (SOC). In turn, anyone monitoring the batteries can make a more informed decision when the batteries should be replaced.
Indeed, the addition of Li-ion batteries integrates nicely with the use of other electronics, thereby reducing the carbon footprint and maximising energy. Because data centre applications require less space, Li-ion batteries can easily be incorporated in data centre use whilst fuelling UPS power needs.
To save money on UPS systems today, it is important to understand the dynamics of using a back-up power supply, such as UPS, and plan your budget accordingly. Also, you should schedule ongoing maintenance to make the most of your energy supply. By using the right UPS energy saving system (ESS), you can dramatically reduce facility cooling and overall utility costs. That is why you need to review the advantages of ESS.
ESS permits a marked increase in UPS operating effectiveness, without the need to compromise load protection or efficiency. When in ESS mode, UPS provides the mains current directly to the load. This is done in under two milliseconds, or as soon as the power fails. Therefore, the user receives secured power to the load whilst experiencing maximised efficiency.
That is why companies, such as Eaton, are leading the way in UPS efficiencies today. The high efficiency of an ESS easily lowers energy consumption and costs. In fact, at higher loads, users can experience an improvement of five percentage points — 99% compared to 94% for typical UPS systems. At reduced loads, the differences are indeed dramatic.
Even small increases in the energy efficiency of a UPS system can translate rapidly into thousands of pounds. This difference is realised in more real power and reduced cooling costs. For example, a 1-megawatt data centre with an older UPS may waste as much as 150 kW of power, thereby emitting a good deal of heat. By replacing the vintage equipment and adding a high-efficiency ESS UPS, you can free up around 120 kW of power to support new electronics and lessen cooling system costs.
ESS UPS systems operate in one of four main modes, as follows:
• Standard mode systems feature a UPS that operates with an ESS with inverter technology.
• Double-conversion mode systems sense a short-term power issue and convert the incoming power from AC to DC and back again to AC.
• High-alert mode systems remain in double-conversion mode for a specific time before reverting to standard mode.
• Storm detection mode instantly switches to double-conversion mode for eight hours before reverting to high-efficiency mode.
You might say that ESS is an advanced eco-mode system. With conventional eco-modes, transfers may take seconds or longer — enough time for support to fail. On the other hand, an ESS can detect and make a transition faster than the traditional, albeit high-efficiency, schemes. That is because an ESS features a transformer-less topology — one that maintains 99% efficiency, regardless of the load or the quality of the power feed.
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